How do I determine the Cost of Goods Sold for an item?
I tell my clients that Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) is any cost incurred that directly relates to getting the sold goods out the door.
I have them ask the question “Would you have this expense if you hadn’t made the sale?”
Typical examples of COGS are product purchased for resale, subcontractors or vendors you hire specifically for preparing a product for sale, shipping materials like packaging, freight costs of receiving the resale product and shipping the product to your customers, payroll/labor costs of your employees who are directly related to preparing the goods to be sold or shipped out (would you have hired them if you didn’t have the product to sell?).
Costs that are not directly related to getting the product out the door are considered Expenses or Operating Expenses and include things like your liability insurance premiums, telephones, office supplies, office-related postage and delivery, advertising, clerical payroll, employee benefits and health insurance for the employees and would be considered costs of managing the paperwork for the overall business,
Again, if you would have the expense if you weren’t selling your product or service, it is an expense considered overhead. If you have the expense only because you selling the product or service, it’s COGS.
This is a very simplistic definition and there are certainly areas of disagreement among different people, but if you relate it strictly to your business you should be able to come up with your COGS vs Expenses.
In a nutshell…
Cost of Goods sold is anything and everything that costs you money to buy items for resale, have them delivered to your store to sell, package and label them, import them, fix them or otherwise make them fit to sell.
If it costs you $100 to purchase an item, $5.00 to have each one shipped to your store, it costs $2.50 each in import duty and taxes, $10.00 each to have them inspected by QC, and $5.00 each to fix little problems with each item, your COGS is $122.50.